CISCO CyberOps lab – Using Windows PowerShell; cybersecurity training

Objectives

The objective of the lab is to explore some of the functions of PowerShell.

Part 1: Access PowerShell console.

Part 2: Explore Command Prompt and PowerShell commands.

Part 3: Explore cmdlets.

Part 4: Explore the netstat command using PowerShell.

Part 5: Empty recycle bin using PowerShell.

Background / Scenario

PowerShell is a powerful automation tool. It is both a command console and a scripting language. In this lab, you will use the console to execute some of the commands that are available in both the command prompt and PowerShell. PowerShell also has functions that can create scripts to automate tasks and work together with the Windows Operating System.

Required Resources

  • 1 Windows PC with PowerShell installed and internet access

Instructions

Part 1: Access PowerShell console.

  1. Click Start. Search and select powershell.
  2. Click Start. Search and select command prompt.

Part 2: Explore Command Prompt and PowerShell commands.

  1. Enter dir at the prompt in both windows.

Question:

What are the outputs to the dir command?

 

Both windows provide a list of subdirectories and files, and associated information like type, file size, date and time of last write. In PowerShell, the attributes/modes are also shown.

  1. Try another command that you have used in the command prompt, such as ping, cd, and ipconfig.

Question:

What are the results?

 

The output in both windows are similar.

Part 3: Explore cmdlets.

  1. PowerShell commands, cmdlets, are constructed in the form of verb-noun To identify the PowerShell command to list the subdirectories and files in a directory, enter Get-Alias dir at the PowerShell prompt.

PS C:\Users\CyberOpsUser> Get-Alias dir

 

CommandTypeNameVersionSource

—————————-

Aliasdir -> Get-ChildItem

Question:

What is the PowerShell command for dir?

 

Get-ChildItem

  1. For more detailed information about cmdlets, perform an internet search for Microsoft powershell cmdlets.
  2. Close the Command Prompt window when done.
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Part 4: Explore the netstat command using PowerShell.

  1. At the PowerShell prompt, enter netstat -h to see the options available for the netstat

PS C:\Users\CyberOpsUser> netstat -h

 

Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections.

 

NETSTAT [-a] [-b] [-e] [-f] [-n] [-o] [-p proto] [-r] [-s] [-x] [-t] [interval]

-a Displays all connections and listening ports.

-b Displays the executable involved in creating each connection or listening port. In some cases well-known executables host multiple independent components, and in these cases the sequence of components involved in creating the connection or listening port is displayed. In this case the executable name is in [] at the bottom, on top is the component it called, and so forth until TCP/IP was reached. Note that this option can be time-consuming and will fail unless you have sufficient permissions.

<some output omitted>

  1. To display the routing table with the active routes, enter netstat -r at the prompt.

PS C:\Users\CyberOpsUser> netstat -r

===========================================================================

Interface List

3…08 00 27 a0 c3 53 ……Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Desktop Adapter

10…08 00 27 26 c1 78 ……Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Desktop Adapter #2

1………………………Software Loopback Interface 1

===========================================================================

 

IPv4 Route Table

===========================================================================

Active Routes:

Network Destination Netmask Gateway Interface  Metric

0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.5     25

127.0.0.0        255.0.0.0         On-link         127.0.0.1    331

127.0.0.1  255.255.255.255         On-link         127.0.0.1    331

127.255.255.255  255.255.255.255         On-link         127.0.0.1    331

169.254.0.0      255.255.0.0         On-link   169.254.181.151    281

169.254.181.151  255.255.255.255         On-link   169.254.181.151    281

169.254.255.255  255.255.255.255         On-link   169.254.181.151    281

192.168.1.0    255.255.255.0         On-link       192.168.1.5    281

192.168.1.5  255.255.255.255         On-link       192.168.1.5    281

192.168.1.255  255.255.255.255         On-link       192.168.1.5    281

224.0.0.0        240.0.0.0         On-link         127.0.0.1    331

224.0.0.0        240.0.0.0         On-link       192.168.1.5    281

224.0.0.0        240.0.0.0         On-link   169.254.181.151    281

255.255.255.255  255.255.255.255         On-link         127.0.0.1    331

255.255.255.255  255.255.255.255         On-link       192.168.1.5    281

255.255.255.255  255.255.255.255         On-link   169.254.181.151    281

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===========================================================================

Persistent Routes:

None

 

IPv6 Route Table

===========================================================================

Active Routes:

If Metric Network Destination      Gateway

1    331 ::1/128                  On-link

3    281 fe80::/64                On-link

10    281 fe80::/64                On-link

10    281 fe80::408b:14a4:7b64:b597/128

On-link

3    281 fe80::dd67:9e98:9ce0:51e/128

On-link

1    331 ff00::/8                 On-link

3    281 ff00::/8                 On-link

10    281 ff00::/8                 On-link

===========================================================================

Persistent Routes:

None

Question:

What is the IPv4 gateway?

 

Answers will vary. The gateway is 192.168.1.1 in this example.

  1. Open and run a second PowerShell with elevated privileges. Click Start. Search for PowerShell and right-click Windows PowerShell and select Run as administrator. Click Yes to allow this app to make changes to your device.
  2. The netstat command can also display the processes associated with the active TCP connections. Enter the netstat -abno at the prompt.

PS C:\Windows\system32> netstat -abno

 

Active Connections

 

Proto  Local Address          Foreign Address        State           PID

TCP    0.0.0.0:135            0.0.0.0:0              LISTENING       756

RpcSs

[svchost.exe]

TCP    0.0.0.0:445            0.0.0.0:0              LISTENING       4

Can not obtain ownership information

TCP    0.0.0.0:49664          0.0.0.0:0              LISTENING       444

Can not obtain ownership information

TCP    0.0.0.0:49665          0.0.0.0:0              LISTENING       440

Schedule

[svchost.exe]

TCP    0.0.0.0:49666          0.0.0.0:0              LISTENING       304

EventLog

[svchost.exe]

TCP    0.0.0.0:49667          0.0.0.0:0              LISTENING       1856

[spoolsv.exe]

TCP    0.0.0.0:49668          0.0.0.0:0              LISTENING       544

<some output omitted>

  1. Open the Task Manager. Navigate to the Details Click the PID heading so the PID are in order.
  2. Select one of the PIDs from the results of netstat -abno. PID 756 is used in this example.
  3. Locate the selected PID in the Task Manager. Right-click the selected PID in the Task Manager to open the Properties dialog box for more information.

Question:

What information can you get from the Details tab and the Properties dialog box for your selected PID?

 

PID 756 is associated with svchost.exe process. The user for this process is NETWORK SERVICE and it is using 4132K of memory.

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Part 5: Empty recycle bin using PowerShell.

PowerShell commands can simplify management of a large computer network. For example, if you wanted to implement a new security solution on all servers in the network you could use a PowerShell command or script to implement and verify that the services are running. You can also run PowerShell commands to simplify actions that would take multiple steps to execute using Windows graphical desktop tools.

  1. Open the Recycle Bin. Verify that there are items that can be deleted permanently from your PC. If not, restore those files.
  2. If there are no files in the Recycle Bin, create a few files, such as text file using Notepad, and place them into the Recycle Bin.
  3. In a PowerShell console, enter clear-recyclebin at the prompt.

PS C:\Users\CyberOpsUser> clear-recyclebin

 

Confirm

Are you sure you want to perform this action?

Performing the operation “Clear-RecycleBin” on target “All of the contents of the Recycle Bin”.

[Y] Yes  [A] Yes to All  [N] No  [L] No to All  [S] Suspend  [?] Help (default is “Y”): y

Question:

What happened to the files in the Recycle Bin?

 

The files in the Recycle Bin are deleted permanently.

Reflection Question

PowerShell was developed for task automation and configuration management. Using the internet, research commands that you could use to simplify your tasks as a security analyst. Record your findings.

 

Answers will vary.

End of document



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